|The urinary system is responsible for the elimination of urine . The urinary system consists of the kidneys (2), ureter (two), bladder, and urethra.The two bean shaped (weighing in at about 4 to 5 ounces each; measuring 4 to 5 inches long, 5 to 7 inches in width, and about 1 inch thick), compound glands are called the kidneys. They are located at the back of the abdomen, one on either side of the upper lumbar vertebrae. Because the right lobe of the liver is larger than that of the left, the right kidney sits lower than that of the left kidney. The kidney’s duty is to remove waste from the blood.Urine travels down two thin tubes, called an ureter (one from each kidney, they measure 10 to 12 inches long and 1/2 inch in diameter) and deposited into the bladder. The bladder, is an oval shaped bag, that is located in the pelvic cavity. At the neck of the bladder is a circular muscle called a sphincter muscle. The duty of the sphincter muscle when signaled by a nerve impulse is to start the void (urination) process. From the constricted end of the neck of the bladder the urethra evolves. A full bladder discharges urine through the urethra.The color and quantity of urine varies according to diet, circumstances (health, illness), and size of person (child, adult). Urine concentration is estimated at about 90 percent water and 10 percent solids (various salts, uric acid, urea).Health concerns of the urinary system involving the kidney and/or urinary tract may develop due to disease, illness, injury or bacteria infections. Urinary calculus (any stone(s) formed in the urinary system – kidney, ureter or bladder), kidney failure, bladder control problems (urine frequency, hesitancy or incontinence) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are just a few. Types of UTIs are: Cystitis, Urethritis, and Pyelonephritis; they can treated medically by anti-bacterial medications. A common urinary tract infection can sometimes be treated by a simple home remedy such as cranberry juice.
In order for the urinary system to function properly it must have enough water and potassium from normal dietary sources. Red vegetables (tomatoes-lycopene) and fruits (cranberry) benefit the urinary system, as well as vitamin C, E and folic acid are key.
Glandular Endocrine System
The endocrine system is a network of ductless glands that produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream for transport to specific target organs, where they exert their effect. Along with the nervous system, the endocrine system coordinates and regulates many of the activities of the body, including growth, metabolism, sexual development and reproduction.
Some examples of these glands are the thymus gland, parathyroid, pancreas, pineal body, thyroid glands. If the endocrine glands are unable to perform their normal functions certain conditions may occur. An example: the parathyroid gland (the four glands above the thyroid) normally secretes the hormone parathormone. Parathormone’s normal function is to regulate the amount of calcium in the blood. If an excess secretion occurs than the onset of trembling occurs due to the lack of muscular control. If there is a diminished secretion then a contraction of muscles (tetany); death occurs.
The proper function of the glandular system requires ample stores of minerals, particularly trace minerals. Three examples would be the thyroid need iodine, the pancreas need chromium and particularly men need zinc from their glandular system.
I have outlined the reproductive system as its own category for educational purposes, though it is part of the glandular or endocrine system.
Reproductive System (human)
The reproductive system contains organs and tissues that coordinate the production of mature gametes (male gamete – sperm; female gamete – egg) in union and their development; produce an offspring (child). The reproductive system is under control if numerous hormones are secreted by the pituitary gland, the sex organs (testes and ovaries) and the adrenal glands.
The reproduction system of the male includes the testes, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, urethra, and penis.
The reproduction system of the female includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and the vulva.
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